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Statistical techniques for detecting and validating phonesthemes
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Within Peirce's "theory of signs" the phonestheme is considered to be an "icon" rather than a "symbol" or an "index".
Phonesthemes are of critical interest to students of the internal structure of words because they appear to be a case where the internal structure of the word is non-compositional; i.e., a word with a phonestheme in it has other material in it that is not itself a morpheme.
Phonesthemes "fascinate some linguists," as Ben Zimmer has phrased it, in a process that can become "mystical" or "unscientific." For example, the English phonestheme "gl-" occurs in a large number of words relating to light or vision, like "glitter", "glisten", "glow", "gleam", "glare", "glint", "glimmer", "gloss", and so on; yet, despite this, the remainder of each word is not itself a phonestheme (i.e., a pairing of form and meaning); i.e., "-isten", "-ow", and "eam" do not make meaningful contributions to "glisten", "glow", and "gleam".
There are three main ways in which phonesthemes are empirically identified.
The first is through corpus studies, where the words of a language are subjected to statistical analysis, and the particular form-meaning pairing, or phonestheme, is shown to constitute a statistically unexpected distribution in the lexicon or not.