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Cosmogenic dating definition

Aficionados of the countryside are aware that it’s beneficial to differentiate between molehills and cowpats whilst traversing a field.

Similarly, aficionados of science should realise that it’s beneficial to differentiate between moles and cowpats whilst traversing the field of Atmospheric Science.

Therefore, before a mole can be defined it’s necessary to define the ensemble and then agree upon the elementary entities that are contained within the ensemble.

This is where the fun begins because ensembles and their elementary entities are defined by human beings.

Amount of substance is a standards-defined quantity that measures the size of an ensemble of elementary entities, such as atoms, molecules, electrons, and other particles.

It is a macroscopic property and it is sometimes referred to as chemical amount. Two ensembles that are frequently used in Atmospheric Science are Air and Atmosphere.

The International System of Units (SI) defines the amount of substance to be proportional to the number of elementary entities present. Both of these ensembles are very difficult to define because their associated elementary entities are extremely diverse and variable.

Air is the stuff humans breathe as they walk across a field.Sometimes the air is hot and sometimes it’s cold [temperature].Sometimes the air is sticky and sometimes it’s dry [humidity].Sometimes the air is heavy and sometimes it’s light [barometric pressure].Sometimes the air is calm and sometimes it’s blowing a gale [wind speed].Sometimes the air contains frozen water [snow and hail].Sometimes the air contains liquid water [rain and fog].Sometimes the air contains soot from a nearby bonfire [particulate matter]. Sometimes the atmosphere contains insufficient air to breathe.Sometimes the air contains dust from the Sahara desert [particles]. Sometimes the atmosphere displays fireballs and meteors. Sometimes the atmosphere contains air that is poisonous to breathe.Sometimes the air contains smelly marsh gas [trace gases]. Sometimes the atmosphere seems to stretch out to the stars. Clearly, the real world is difficult to encapsulate with crisp, clean concepts.Sometimes the air crackles with static electricity [charge]. Atmosphere is the stuff humans walk through as they cross a field. However, in the laboratory, it is possible to create the ideal conditions for encapsulation.

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