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Turner first saw Norham, bordering Scotland on the river Tweed in Northumberland, in 1797.

He was at the limits of his trip to northern England, when he also visited Buttermere, seen in the painting of nearly fifty years earlier shown nearby.

Pure colours rather than contrasting tones express the blazing light as the historic building and landscape merge. 514) is based on a detail of the frontispiece, which was not given a classification.

, roughly similar in size, style, colouring and degree of finish, is remarkable in being based largely on compositions used much earlier by Turner for the Liber Studiorum. The degree of dependence on the Liber model varies.

In the case of Landscape with a River and Bay in the Distance (No.

509), Chepstow Castle, which forms the main topographical motif of the Liber plate, ‘The Junction of the Severn and the Wye’, is omitted, but in two other cases, rather surprisingly, Turner makes the late oil more topographically specific than the Liber plate, Landscape with Walton Bridges (No. 518 [ or the British Institution before completing them on varnishing days; see in particular John Burnet's description of such unfinished pictures as being ‘divided into large masses of blue, where the water or sky was to come, and [with] the other portions laid out in broad orange yellow, falling into delicate brown where the trees and landscapes were to be placed’ (Burnet 1852, p. 84–5), and Rippingille's description of Turner at work on The Burning of the House of Lords and Commons at the British Institution in 1835 (see No. It has, however, been suggested that these works are more than just a random selection of late unfinished pictures. In addition, it has recently been discovered that the paintings from the series now in the Tate Gallery were painted on supplied by the firm of T.

Lawrence Gowing, at the Turner Symposium held at Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore in April 1975, suggested that Turner may have painted this series as a trial run to see if such ‘sketchy’ pictures were marketable. Brown that bear stamps of a form that does not seem to have been used before about 1839 and also, in one case, a second stamp incorporating an element that gives the year in which the canvas was made: Norham Castle, Sunrise (No. 1835–40 given in the first edition of this catalogue must be wrong and that the whole group must date from c.

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At the same symposium Jerrold Ziff suggested that, although towards the end of his life Turner appeared to become increasingly occupied with images of disaster, this group of oils, mainly of ‘elevated pastoral’ or ‘pastoral’ subjects, shows that Turner still felt that there was a place for the idyllic in the repertoire of a landscape painter and that he may have intended the group to stand as a reaffirmation of his faith in Nature in her more tranquil moods. 512 []) bears an example of this second form of stamp implying the date 1844 (see Butlin, loc. 1840 or later, with Norham Castle, Sunrise after 1844.

On the other hand, one cannot guarantee that Turner, in completing these unfinished works, might not have radically changed their mood; Frith's anecdote about Turner adding the dominant blue to Undine giving the Ring to Massaniello (see No. Moreover, if this group of works is as late as has sometimes been argued (see below) one has to face the fact that Turner may have been at a loss for new compositions. In reviews of our first edition Luke Herrmann had already suggested that at least some of this group could date from the later 1840s or even to c. 1845–50 THE TATE GALLERY, LONDON (1981) Canvas, 35 3/4 × 48 (91 × 122) Coll.

Of the three works he exhibited between 18 inclusive, one was an early work left untouched, Venus and Adonis (No. Turner's use of Liber Studiorum subjects has been associated with his revival of interest in that publication; in May and June 1845 he had Mc Queen's run off fifteen new sets (see John Pye and J. Roget, Notes and Memoranda respecting the Liber Studiorum of J. 1850 and Eric Shanes (1981) had suggested a dating of c. Turner Bequest 1856; transferred to the Tate Gallery 1914. Paris 1938 (145); New York, Chicago and Toronto 1946–7 (54, pl.

150), while the other two were also early works, reworked for the occasion, The Hero of a Hundred Fights (No. 1845, when Mc Queen reprinted the Liber; Andrew Wilton had also suggested that this group of oils ‘are products of Turner's last years’. 46); Amsterdam, Berne, Paris, Brussels, Liege (34), Venice and Rome (39) 1947–8; Paris 1953 (82); New York, St.

More recently John Gage has also dated the group to c. cit.), and Eric Shanes has gone further (1984), suggesting an actual order of completion beginning c.

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